In addition to water and sand, other additives are used in fluids to allow hydraulic fracturing to be performed in a safe and effective manner. Additives used in hydraulic fracturing fluids include a number of compounds found in common consumer products.
A representation showing the percent by volume composition of typical deep shale
natural gas or oil hydraulic fracturing fluid components (see graphic) reveals that approximately 98% of the fracturing mixture is comprised of freshwater and sand. This mixture is injected into the formation and is typically confined by many thousands of feet of rock layers. Visit
fracfocus.org for the quantities of additives used for Chesapeake and other industry wells.
*Other common uses of the product may not be in the same quantity or concentration.